Early Images of Teotihuacan in the Modern Era

Early Images of Teotihuacan in the Modern Era

by Yolanda Peláez Castellanos

Today, it is very easy to photograph and document the world around us. For example, people visiting Teotihuacan can take countless photos and share them on social media immediately; however, in the past, it was much harder to capture and reproduce images. The lithographs, paintings, and photographs from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century demonstrate the many changes that the archaeological zone of Teotihuacan has undergone. Most of the images here can be found at INAH’s Media Library.

Developed in the late 18th century, lithography is a printing method which has been used to preserve images that explorers saw. In lithography, an image is engraved on a surface (usually limestone), ink is applied, and then the stone is pressed into paper (Tate 2021). This process allowed for a wider distribution of images of sites such as the Teotihuacan pyramids and its scenery during the 19th century.

Figure 1. Pyramid of Teotihuacan, lithograph, ca. 1870, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 2. Sun and Moon Pyramids, lithograph, ca. 1870, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.

José María Velasco (1840-1912) was a Mexican painter who accompanied Gumesindo Mendoza in his expeditions to Teotihuacan and portrayed the city’s landscape in his paintings (Google Arts and Culture s.f.). Teotihuacan was abandoned around AD 550, so after some 1,300 years had passed, there was certainly a lot more vegetation covering the monuments for Velasco to capture.

Figure 3. “Sun Pyramid in Teotihuacan,” painting by José María Velasco, 1878,
© Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 4. “Teotihuacan,” painting by José María Velasco, 1878, © Museo Soumaya, Fundación Carlos Slim.

Here are some bonus photographs of the site (way back in the day) for you to enjoy:

Figure 5. Stairs at the Street of the Dead, Desireé Charnay, 1880, ©American Philosophical Society.
Figure 7. Moon Pyramid, ca. 1910-1920,
© Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 6. East view of the Sun (left) and Moon (right) Pyramids, Antonio Peñafiel, 1900, (Peñafiel, 1900).
Figure 8. Moon Pyramid and Street of the Dead before archaeological activities, ca. 1910, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.

The first archaeological work began on site in the early 20th century by Leopoldo Batres to commemorate the centennial of the Mexican War of Independence. Batres was commissioned by President Porfirio Díaz to explore and restore some of Teotihuacan’s monuments. This project included reconstructing the Sun Pyramid, building railway lines, and discovering murals in the Temple of Agriculture (Batres 1993 [1919]).

Figure 9. Workers during reconstruction work, ca. 1910, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 11. Leopoldo Batres, Franz Boas, and other members of the Congress of Americanists on a tour of the Teotihuacan archaeological site, ca. 1910, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 10. Porfirio Díaz and others eating inside a cave near the archaeological site, ca. 1910, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 11. Justo Sierra, Leopoldo Batres, and others during the Congress of Americanists, ca. 1909-1910, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.

Seeing the clothes that people wore back then is a testament to how much time has passed. Indeed, fashion has changed since.

Figure 13. Man next to a Chalchitlicue sculpture, ca. 1910, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 14. Woman and girl at the Teotihuacan Museum, ca. 1915, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.

The excavation, restoration, and reconstruction of Teotihuacan continued through the 20th century. The rest of the photographs here likely refer to:

  • The project directed by Manuel Gamio where he carried out a comprehensive study of the population in the Teotihuacan Valley (Gamio 1922). Some of the work his team accomplished include the excavations of the Ciudadela as well as the exploration and restoration of the Feathered Serpent Pyramid and its attached adosada (Figures 15-17).
  • Excavated pits in the Ciudadela and tunnels in the Feathered Serpent Pyramid by José Pérez under the direction of Alfonso Caso (Pérez 1997:488 [1939]) (Figure 18).
  • The Teotihuacan Project directed by Ignacio Bernal, head of the Department of Prehispanic Monuments. Although some of the buildings were excavated to learn more about their history, most of them were reconstructed so they could be restored back to the last occupational phase look (Bernal 1997 [1963]) (Figures 19 and 20).
Figure 15. Portrait of workers from San Juan Teotihuacan, ca. 1915, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 17. Reconstruction of the Feathered Serpent Pyramid, 4 May 1921, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 19. Men working at the reconstruction site, ca. 1961, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 16. Reconstruction at the Ciudadela, ca. 1918-1921, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 18. Reconstruction of a building at the Ciudadela, ca. 1930, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Figure 20. Men working at the reconstruction of a building along the Steet of the Dead, ca. 1962, © Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.

These images document how much change Teotihuacan had undergone in the first half of the 20th century. Although several centuries have passed since its occupation during the Classic period, this site continues to be relevant in the construction of our history. To know more about the history of this pre-Hispanic city, you can check the PPCC’s study area section.


Bernal, Ignacio
1997[1963] Teotihuacan: descubrimientos y reconstrucciones. In Antología de documentos para la historia de la arqueología de Teotihuacan, compiled by Roberto Gallegos Ruiz, José Roberto Gallegos Téllez Rojo, and Miguel Gabriel Pastrana Flores, pp. 594-615. National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico, D.F.

Batres, Leopoldo
1993 [1919] The “Discovery” of the Sun Pyramid. Arqueología Mexicana 2:45-48.

Gamio, Manuel
1922    La población del valle de Teotihuacan, Vol. I, 1. Dirección de Antropología, Secretaría de Agricultura y Fomento, Mexico, D.F.

Google Arts and Culture
s.f.       Teotihuacan. Electronic document,, accessed February 23, 2021.

Pérez, José
1997[1939] Informe de los trabajos de Alfonso Caso y José R. Pérez. In Antología de documentos para la historia de la arqueología de Teotihuacan, compiled by Roberto Gallegos Ruiz, José Roberto Gallegos Téllez Rojo, and Miguel Gabriel Pastrana Flores, pp. 488-498. National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico, D.F.

2021 Art Term: Lithography. Electronic document,, accessed February 24, 2021.



Come join us at the Society for American Archaeology’s 2021 conference. This year it will be online and our team members have prepared the following presentations:


8:30 am EDT – 7:30 am CDT
Ariel Texis Muñoz, Tanya Catignani, Nawa Sugiyama and Saburo Sugiyama—Mapping Teotihuacan’s Inception: Patlachique Phase Ceramics Distribution on the Lidar Map

10:15 am EDT – 9:15 am CDT
Teresa Hsu and Nawa Sugiyama—Playing with Your Food to Feed the Masses: A Zooarchaeological Perspective at Teotihuacan, Mexico


11:00 am EDT – 10:00 am CDT
Ryohei Takatsuchi, Nawa Sugiyama, Saburo Sugiyama, Tanya Catignani and Yolanda Peláez Castellanos—Spatial Distribution of Ceramics and Lithics at the Plaza of the Columns Complex, Teotihuacan, Mexico

See you all there!

The conference’s final program can be found at the SAA Website.



Recent Discoveries at Teotihuacan: Excavations at the Plaza of the Columns

Free admission and stream online

As part of a circuit of conferences called “Archaeology Today” (coordinated by Dr. Leonardo López Luján), Dr. Saburo Sugiyama and Dr. Nawa Sugiyama, co-directors of the Project Plaza of the Columns Complex, will present an interesting lecture on the most recent discoveries at Teotihuacan made by their project.

Multiple aspects of Teotihuacan, such as urban planning, new LiDAR maps of the Teotihuacan Valley, the arrival of Maya elites, and the sacrifice of animals, will be revealed to the general public.

Do not miss this opportunity to attend the Colegio Nacional next Wednesday, June 12th, at 6pm. If you can’t make it in person, check out to stream online.

And behind the archaeologists… our fieldworkers

And behind the archaeologists… our fieldworkers

by Adriana Sánchez

It has been an intense week with the conclusion of the third field season (2017) of the PPCC. This includes putting the final touches on all pending fieldwork tasks: the last photo taken, the final line drawn, and the closing word of descriptions written in the notebook.

We have just three days left for filling in the last four open excavation areas. The first of them extends over an area of 12 meters long by 3 meters wide and reaches depths between 2 to 4 meters. The second area is not that wide but is certainly large and complex; it is a tunnel that runs over 10 meters long, 1 meter wide, and 1.5 meters high. The third one is located on one of the highest structures of the complex covering an area of approximately 9 meters long, 6 meters wide, and 3 meters deep. The last area revisits a tunnel previously excavated during the first fieldwork season in 2015 and continues to provide several interesting finds.

Upon finishing the last field details and closing out the season, the adrenaline runs high with a mixture of stress, anxiety, and emotions. All excavated areas must be cleaned and perfectly covered in backfill.

In order to accomplish these monumental tasks, we rely on local fieldworkers from neighboring communities near the “Zona de Monumentos Arqueológicos de Teotihuacan” (Teotihuacan Archaeological Monuments Area, ZMAT). These individuals are usually young men who recently turned 18 years old (legal working age in Mexico) and thus experience their first job with the project or, on the contrary, are mature men who each have more than 10 years of experience working for diverse archaeological research projects in the ZMAT.

These are the people who do all the hard and labor-intensive work: lifting heavy buckets filled with earth from excavation area to sifting station, carrying heavy stones out of excavation areas, finding out ways to protect excavations from rain by maneuvering a makeshift awning, among many others tasks. Although archaeologists lead the fieldwork and its activities, we acknowledge the hard and important labor our fieldworkers do to support us and the PPCC.

Often times, the fieldworkers have to endure when an archaeologist is in a bad mood during stressful situations due to lack of time particularly at the end of the field season. Despite this, they are supportive and encourage us to continue working on “that what we call archaeology.”

Not everyone can be a fieldworker in an archaeological project as this job demands a balance of finesse, precision, and strength. Finding the right combination and stamina may ultimately decide whether one returns for the next field season. However, we gladly welcome back most familiar faces who possess these characteristics and look forward to working together again out in the field, right until the inevitable stressful end of the season.

THANK YOU TO ALL who supported our PPCC team during this third field season! Muchas gracias!

Looking for traces of the past: interpreting the surface of the Teotihuacan Valley

Looking for traces of the past: interpreting the surface of the Teotihuacan Valley

During the 2017 field season, the Plaza of the Columns Project used a special type of investigative tool called LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) to verify archaeological features out in the field. This method of remote sensing integrates GPS technologies, Inertial Measurement Unit, and lasers in order to collect altitudinal data. The combination of these sources help to define the surface of the terrain by generating digital elevation models (DEM) for us to further interpret and analyze.

In general terms, this technique allows us to recover traces of the past, either pre-Hispanic, colonial, or historical, which today are reflected in cultivated terraces, mounds or artificial elevations, and jagueyes or water reservoirs.

These features are blurred in what are now nopaleras (terrain covered in the nopal or cactus plant), agricultural fields, or even modern day villages. But thanks to this surveying method, one can outline the dimensions and proportions of architectural or hydraulic features of the past.


Coexistence with the settlers

While surveying the area, we have had the pleasure to interview landowners and gather historical information of past populations. They recalled early childhood stories told by their parents or grandparents about the foundation or organization of their communities since the beginning of the 20th century.

In addition to sharing their experiences, they provided information on the elements that we recognize today in LiDAR images. For example, in the town of Ixtlahuaca in the municipality of San Martin of the Pyramids, interviewees Juan Guillermo Castro, Pablo Rivero, Alejandro Hernández Ramirez, and Sebastián Medina shared stories when the only accessible water was from the water reservoir located in the center of the village. They also recalled the time when this part of the valley belonged to the Hacienda of Cerro Gordo. Other interviewees, Genoveva Diaz Alba with her daughters Lidia and Maria del Carmen Delgadillo Diaz, told us that her husband decided to modify the terrain in the 1970s in order to better cultivate it.

In addition to plentiful stories, some locals were highly generous and went over and beyond. Mr. Filemon Macías Juárez of San Lorenzo Tlamimilolpa not only granted us permission to visit his land but also donated a collection of ceramic materials that he collected throughout his lifetime. This allowed us to increase our comparative sample with late materials and correspond them to the Postclassic occupation of the region.

The enthusiasm and cooperation of the landowners are a result of the clear and transparent management of our objectives. Often times, the locals are contacted by other institutions with much less cordial terms. Therefore, we feel committed to establish clear communication and respect. We want them to feel informed and involved, whether by asking them to personally see the work we do, responding and explaining any personal doubts or observations, or adjusting to their needs and availability.



It is important to highlight the support provided by the municipal and auxiliary authorities of Ixtlahuaca and Santa Maria Palapa in the municipality of San Martin of the Pyramids. We also thank San Juan Teotihuacan in the Barrio de Purificación, San Sebastián Xolalpan, San Francisco Mazapa, Santa Maria Coatlan, and San Lorenzo Tlamimilolpan. Lastly, we gives thanks to private organizations such as the Animal Kingdom Zoo.


Teotihuacan: City of Water, City of Fire

Teotihuacan: City of Water, City of Fire

Interested in seeing Teotihuacan artifacts? Come visit the new exhibition Teotihuacan: City of Water, City of Fire at the de Young Museum in San Francisco, California (September 30, 2017 – February 11, 2018). Can’t make it, or simply want to learn more? Check out the catalog for this exhibition where you can read chapters written by our very own PPCC co-directors.

Virtual 3D Animal Bone Models

Virtual 3D Animal Bone Models

Zooarchaeology is a field within archaeology that seeks to answer questions about past human occupation and their environment through the study of animal remains1. In practice, this means that a zooarchaeologist must be an expert in identifying animal bones. However, animals come in diverse shapes and sizes. How can someone develop expertise in such a broad field?

Having a comparative reference collection is key for understanding and formulating distinct patterns among differing species. And this is where I come in. I have just finished a project that helps lay the foundation for zooarchaeology students to build their proficiency in bone identification. Over the last four months, I have created a series of virtual three-dimensional models of deer bones. Everything from a deer’s cranium to the phalanx (or toe bone) is captured in this digital collection. Below you can explore some examples of these models:



So, how do you even start to create a 3D model? Well, it starts with taking dozens of photos of each bone element. I then loaded the photos into a program called Agisoft’s Photoscan which “stitched” them together; by taking multiple photos from different angles and views, the program was able to compile these series of two-dimensional images and transform them into virtual 3D models. After the deer bones were modeled, I uploaded them onto Sketchfab, a website that allows users to display, embed, and share 3D models online. Sketchfab is particularly helpful for this project because it allows students to view the models on smartphones, tablets, and computers alike. It also has the feature to place annotations within each model, as evidenced by the standard measurements and points included on each bone.

I will find out this summer how these models work in practice, for several students from George Mason University (GMU) are flying to Mexico to examine animal remains in the field as part of the Project Plaza of the Columns Complex (PPCC). I spoke with one of the students, Leila Martinez, about how she has prepared for this challenging task of traveling and working without a deer comparative and how she thinks 3D models might help her this summer.

According to Leila, learning zooarchaeology requires extensive hands-on study of bones. With the absence of physical bones in hand, students often rely on animal bone manuals, though these often contain hand-drawn images from few static views. She believes that 3D models may make bone identification easier by letting students interact with realistic images. While 3D technology will never be able to replace the direct tactile experience of working with real bone, in time, these 3D virtual reconstructions could rival traditional reference books. After all, books are bulky and often times expensive, and a digital skeletal collection can be easily transported and manipulated all by the swipe or click of a finger.

Students coming to Teotihuacan for zooarchaeological fieldwork can be an exciting and perhaps a little apprehensive experience, especially when one doesn’t know what to expect when joining the PPCC team for the first time. Is there a skeletal reference collection I can use? How complete is it? In what state are the bones I will be analyzing? Several GMU students like Leila and me already have firsthand experience handling bone with cleaning and labeling the many (or shall I say thousands of) animal remains in our Archaeological Sciences lab. Although real world archaeological assemblages are surely more complex with fragmented, commingled, and/or missing bones, I know the hard work I put into preparing these models of complete bones will help zooarchaeologists to confidently identify the specimens they encounter. Creating virtual 3D reference models is a time-consuming endeavor, but in the end I expect these easily transportable, full of detail, and user-friendly products will play a much larger role out in the field than anticipated.



1. Steele, T. E. 2015. The Contributions of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites: The Past and Future of Zooarchaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 56: 168–176.

Lecture at Phoenix Art Museum

Lecture at Phoenix Art Museum

Due to popular demand, the Phoenix Art Museum added an additional lecture by archaeologist Nawa Sugiyama (Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, George Mason University, and co-director of the Project Plaza of the Columns Complex) who will present a 40-minute lecture on the sacred animals, sacred places, and ritualized landscapes at Teotihuacan.

For more information and to reserve tickets visit

Social media & sharing icons powered by UltimatelySocial